Abstracts & Papers in Session 4

Social inclusion and social cohesion are both usually seen as being positive attributes of society, with the ideal society being seen as both inclusive and cohesive. Yet some of the most cohesive societies, while being holistically inclusive of their citizens who conform, are also exclusionary of both non-conforming citizens and non-citizen residents. On the other hand, some of the least exclusionary societies often have low levels of social cohesion, partly because they welcome diversity, difference and multiculturalism. Three strands are discussed in this paper: migration; identity; and welfare. Migration, both within East Asian and on a global scale, is one of the defining characteristics of contemporary society and has substantial economic and social consequences - both positive and negative - for all but the most isolated and inward-looking societies. Loss of resourceful and skilled human resources counterbalanced by income from remittances affects emigrant countries whereas cheap skilled immigrant labour and potential social destabilisation and schism affects destination countries. Identity, particularly national identity, has always been strongly related to social cohesion and social inclusion. The historically complex identity discourses in East Asia (mainly, but not exclusively, related to Chinese identity) have become more complicated with the growth in transnational identity, among second generation Asian migrants in America and Europe as well as among intra-Asian migrants. Welfare is a problematic issue in relation to inclusion and cohesion. A highly cohesive society which provides extensive state welfare services (and is thus highly inclusive to its citizens) usually has also to be highly exclusionary, preventing, guest workers, asylum seekers, refugees and even legal immigrants from claiming full benefits. The paper concludes with a brief discussion of the social quality theoretical approach which incorporated social cohesion and social inclusion, as well as socio-economic security and empowerment, within its overarching structure.

Full paper download: Phillips D_tensions in post-industrial world.pdf

This paper studies the excluding effects of the pro-market welfare-to-work programmes adopted by the Hong Kong Government. It focuses on the New Dawn Project which is designed to help single parents and child carers on the Comprehensive Social Security Assistance Scheme (CSSA) to cope with social exclusion. In this paper we argue that the Hong Kong Government under-estimates the significance of the defects of the labour market as the main cause of the social exclusion faced by many single parents and child carers. Hence, instead of launching structural reforms to deal with the defects of the labour market, it focuses on increasing the ability and willingness of the single parents and child carers on the CSSA to sell their labour in the labour market through the New Dawn Project. As a result, this project has two negative effects on its targets. Firstly, it wrongly blames the single parents and child carers for the unemployment faced by them. Secondly, the project further excludes those who find it difficult to meet the training requirements.

Full paper download: Chiu S_welfare to work in Hong Kong.pdf

Since the late 1980s, "how to activate the unemployed" has shaped the political discourse, the research agenda and legislative reforms of social security in the OECD countries. Hong Kong has followed this track closely and various changes have been introduced to the social security policies in the last decade. Prominent dimensions of change in policy reforms in the west, which include restricting entrance and accelerating exit, segmentation of participants, introduction of contractual obligations and formulation of work-oriented measures, have also been evidenced in the social security reform in Hong Kong. One of the major target groups of the welfare-to-work programmes is the single mothers. It is reported that the number of single parent families living on the Comprehensive Social Security Assistance Scheme (CSSA) has been on the rise in the past ten years. New work-oriented measures targeted at single parents were introduced which included the Intensive Employment Assistance Projects, the Ending Exclusion Project, and the New Dawn Intensive Employment Assistance Projects. While policy makers consider the virtues of personal empowerment, independence, social inclusion and self-realization being intrinsic to paid work, experiences of "work first" programmes in the west suggest that lots of paid jobs taken up by lone mothers are unlikely to achieve these objectives. Similarly, statistics provided by the Hong Kong Government reveal that jobs secured by the New Dawn Project participants are mainly of low income and low skill. The impact of the social security reform in Hong Kong on single mothers, however, has been understudied. In this paper, the various welfare-to-work programmes and their implementation will be examined in details in order to shed light on the situations of single mothers receiving welfare in Hong Kong. It is suggested that without the adequate support of child care services and a family-friendly employment policy, welfare-to-work programmes are unlikely to achieve social inclusion but are merely a tool of social control sanctioning those single mothers who cannot balance paid work and care work.

Full paper download : Hung S_welfare to work and sigle mothers.pdf

Mental illness is one of the major categories to distinguish people from each other, which functions to exclude certain people from self determination of daily living, and subjugate oneself to medical professions' decisions. Clubhouse, a long-recognized psychosocial rehabilitation model for psychiatric patients, has its roots in anti-psychiatry and mutual help movements, and thus is aimed to restore the subjectivity of mental patients through its special institutional and relational arrangements. In the normative level, the concept of social exclusion/inclusion will be adopted to analyze how the institutional arrangements of a clubhouse constitute a site of social inclusion for mental patients to capture the essence of clubhouse. In the empirical level, the experiences of Easy House will be analyzed to illustrate how the clubhouse principles are embodied to promote alternative subjectivity for mental patients. Participatory research is adopted as research design. Both written and oral Narratives of workers and members/patients are collected through a monthly gathering over a ten-month period. Findings show that a holistic view of human being is assumed in the everyday practices of clubhouse model to replace the subjectivity of patient which results from previous engagement with mental health system. Such process of replacement is not a one-time shot but a recursive and on-going one that requires persistence and reflexivity of workers to achieve such goal. We also find that the inclusive essence of clubhouse tends to be missed especially when current discourse on community-based rehabilitation defines 'community' in terms of physical location rather than a process of collective and resistant identity formation.

Full paper download: Wang F_social inclusion for mentally ill.pdf

This paper argues that the provision of public assistance in China was due to the need of the Chinese government to secure a stable society. The introduction of the Minimum Standard of Living Scheme (MSLS) in 1997 for city dwellers was mainly for reducing the dissatisfactions of laid-off workers. The implementation of the rural MSLS in 2007 aimed at minimising conflicts between land-losing farmers and local governments. This type of legitimacy-driven welfare intervention, however, is a key factor contributing to the social exclusion of poor Chinese people. As the main objective of the Chinese government is to secure social stability rather than to promote social justice, a minimal and stigmatised social assistance scheme was created. As a result, some social groups have been excluded from accessing public benefits because of local governments' discriminatory practices; and many MSLS recipients are unable to make ends meet due to an extremely low level of assistance.

Full paper download: Chan C_legitimacy-driven intervention.pdf

Economically inactive young people who are not pursuing any studies or training are regarded as a socially excluded or non-engaged group. This disadvantaged group is however characterized by heterogeneity and diversity particularly with respect to spatial and relational dimensions. Social withdrawal, arguably as an atypical form of social exclusion, is a term used to refer to youth who seclude themselves at home and reject most forms of contact and relationship with the outside world for an extended period of time. This paper argues that young people entrapped in social withdrawal experience an extreme form of social exclusion not only in terms of being deprived of enjoying a legitimate social status and leading a social life with friends or peers, but also in terms of being invisible to the policy makers and suffering from inclusive measures that are paradoxically inflexible and exclusionary. With the use of empirical data and case studies, this paper discusses this new phenomenon and draws implications for policy and organizational practices that are more flexible and target-sensitive.

Full paper download: Wong V_young people in social withdrawal.pdf

These days many Korean bachelors in the rural farming sector are confronting with difficulties in seeking their fiancés. Thus, they are trying to find out their brides from abroad, particularly from China and South-east Asian countries. It is of course that the increasing numbers of immigrant brides make Korean society multicultural and multiracial. Currently, immigrant brides are usually introduced to Korean bachelors by religious groups or professional matchmaking agencies. However, many of the immigrant brides in the Korean rural farming sector are suffering from diverse kinds of difficulties, largely caused by the cultural, value and linguistic differences between their maiden home countries and Korea. Therefore, Korean government has introduced a variety of support programs to help the adequate adaptation of immigrant brides to Korean society. But, notwithstanding the pouring of public money, many of government programs are being criticized for their lack of adequacy, integration and effectiveness. In particular, the government's service delivery system exposes many problems in terms of linkage system, performance, and client satisfaction. Against these backdrops, this paper aims to establish the adequate service delivery system in supporting the immigrant brides in the Korean rural farming sector, from the theoretical viewpoint of local governance. For the aim, this article, at first, widely refers to the literature and statistic data of relevant fields. Deeper analysis will be conducted by structured interview with immigrant brides and relevant public officials. In conclusion, the question of this study is understand how each government construct the local governance system to support the immigrant brides. For solving this question, this study will contain different contents. Part Ⅰprovide the background and necessity of this study. Part Ⅱfocuses on the theoretical discussion of local governance system. The framework of this study is covered in Part Ⅲ. Part Ⅲof this study is also devoted to the analysis of local governance system.

Full paper download: Yoon K_contructing local governance.pdf

In recent years many Korean farming bachelors fail to marry Korean women, and thus they try to find out their brides from developing countries, such as China and Southeast Asian countries. As of 2007, around 40 percent of marriages in Korean rural communities are matched between Korean farming bachelors and immigrant brides, making the Korean rural farming sector truly multicultural. However, not long after marriages, many immigrant brides realize their Korean dreams have been naïve and are confronted with severe difficulties in adapting themselves to the Korean rural society, in terms of social, cultural, educational, linguistic, and economic lives. They are culturally excluded and economically poverty-stricken. Not a few immigrant brides stop staying in marriages and return to their maiden home. Sometimes international marriages give rise to serious diplomatic problems between Korea and the maiden countries of immigrant brides. It is of course that the Korean government is implementing the diverse policies or programs targeting to support the early adaptation of immigrant brides to the Korean society, even though many of them hardly produce effective results. Against these backdrops, this paper aims to examine the following: the difficulties with which the immigrant brides in rural communities are confronted in adapting themselves to the Korean society; the assessment of immigrant brides' needs on government policies or programs; and the suggestion of policy responses to meet the needs. For the aim, this paper will explore, at first, the current situations that the immigrant brides in Korean rural communities are faced and trace the reasons why immigrant brides suffer from difficulties in adapting themselves to the Korean society, in terms of social, cultural, educational, linguistic, and economic lives. The next part assesses the needs that immigrant brides want to be fulfilled, by undertaking survey research and in-depth interviews. What will follow is to scrutinize the effectiveness of the government policies and programs aiming to support the adaptation of immigrant brides to the Korean society. This paper concludes with the exploration of policy responses to facilitate the early adaptation of immigrant brides to their newly settled communities in Korea.

Full paper download: Go S_immigrant brides to Korean rural communities.pdf

Trends of studies on Southeast Asian women married to Korean men

During the last two decades, there has been a significant increase in the number of Southeast Asian women married to Korean men. Subsequently, various disciplines such as social work, psychology, women's studies, education etc, have looked into various topics related to this population. The purpose of this study is to examine past & current trends of studies on this population by analyzing scholarly data bases and to seek for implications for future studies, social policies and practices in social welfare and other related fields. Authors will look into topics of the studies in data bases and categorization of thematic topics will be made. Then, authors will examine abstracts of studies and compare and contrast studies in thematic topics in-depth. Anticipated topics may include adaptation and acculturation, family relationships (couple relations, parent-child relationships, Southeast Asian women-in-laws, etc), social policy and services, research issues, etc. Authors will then discuss future directions in studies, research methods, social policies and practice in social welfare perspective.

Full paper download: Nho C_southeast asian women.pdf

With the increasing pace of globalization and internationalization, new immigrant problem is becoming a conspicuous problem in most metropolitan cities in Asia, of which Hong Kong is a typical example. The problem is exacerbated with the rising demand on welfare and the increasing pressure on welfare reform. However, in Hong Kong, studies on ethnic minorities from South Asia countries are scarce. We understand very little about the situation of ethnic minorities; their social needs are neglected and their voices are suppressed in mainstream social policy making. This paper is based on a research conducted by the authors in 2004 and 2005, which aimed to explore the problems and needs of ethnic minority children in education. We focused on four low-income ethnic groups, namely the Filipinos, Pakistanis, Indians, and Nepalese. There are various education reforms in Hong Kong after the change of sovereignty in 1997, such as policy on medium of instruction and integration of ethnic minorities into mainstream Chinese schools, which have significant impact on ethnic minority school children. Based on both quantitative and qualitative data from our questionnaire survey and in-depth interviews, our research points out that these education reforms seems to create more opportunities for ethnic minorities, however, this also leads to new problems and may contribute to further marginalize and exclude ethnic minorities in Hong Kong. This paper concludes with suggesting cultural sensitive policy and practice that helps Hong Kong to develop into a truly international city.

As the development of health technologies and the extension of life expectancy, the absolute and relative number of the aged have been increasing in many countries. The aged are those who are vulnerable in health, so their health status is an imperative matter of quality of life. Also, regarding the use of medical or rehabilitation services, the aged must be faced with economic difficulties in real, without personal or societal assistance. On the other hand, inequality of health status exists between the aged. On the contrary to young people who have an income and can keep them under control, the aged should depend on social security systems such as health insurance or pension, whose health status varies by persons. One important factor of health inequalities has known as the differences in socioeconomic status (SES). Therefore, this study using Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing (KLoSA) examines subjective and objective health status of the aged by SES in Korea. Also, since the KLoSA has been lain out for international comparisons, this study compares differences of aspects or patterns in health inequality by SES between Korean and other countries, such as the US, UK, and European Unions. This study is expected to give Asian countries important political implications; those are entering developed countries and facing with the increase of the aged and their health inequality, as Korea has been experienced.

The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of socio-demographic factors, health behaviors, physical functional abilities and commercial insurance on self-rated health among the middle aged and elderly in Taiwan. The data, applying a panel data design, investigated whether health behaviors, physical functional abilities and commercial insurance were associated with self-rated health for the middle aged and elderly. The studied subjects were derived from the Survey of Health and Living Status of the Middle Aged and Elderly in Taiwan, which comprised 2,462 observations, aged 50 and over in 1996, and conducted follow-up surveys in 1999, 2003 respectively. Random effects ordered probit regression was performed to assess the panel data and the self-rated health of ordinal, discrete. The empirical results confirm that, when potentially confounding variables were controlled, the elderly with better education, Hakka, Mainlander, people who exercise regularly, and those with commercial insurance had a significantly better level of self-rated health. In contrast, the variables of age, living in rural areas, chronic disease, activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), depression, and betel nut chewing all revealed a significant negative influence on estimated self-rated health. Some findings replicated results from previous literature; others were new. In particular, when other factors were excluded, this paper highlights that the significant effects of gender and living in town on self-rated health were attenuated after including some indicators of functional abilities. Functional ability revealed more important influence on self-rated health than gender and living areas factors. In addition, ADL and IADL were overall strongly associated with self-rated health than reports of other health related characteristics among the middle aged and elderly in Taiwan.

Full paper download: Ho S_elderly in Taiwan.pdf

This paper reports on a study of the health and social care of aboriginal adults in Taiwan with a specific focus on the Paiwan group. This is an undeveloped area of research and the researcher is himself Paiwanese. The study aims to explain which approaches are most appropriate for the delivery of health and social care services to a minority group. The context of the study is secondary data which shows the wide range of inequalities experienced by the Paiwan and the lack of available resources. The study then uses an ethnographic approach to understand the Paiwan's experiences and perspectives. Purposive and snowball sampling were used to identify interviews in both a rural village and a major city. Forty seven people were interviewed including 11 policy makers, 4 Paiwanese cultural workers/researchers and 32 Paiwanese older and disabled people. An additional three focus groups provided data from older and disabled Paiwanese people and three more from service providers. Interviews were analysed thematically. The findings confirm that the Paiwan's traditional model of care has come under threat, not only from Japanese and Chinese invaders but also from modernization, western medicine and movement of young people to cities. It is argued that there are on the agenda two approaches to remedying this situation. One involves seeking to ensure that full citizenship rights are achieved for the community, the other the devolution of control over services to the community itself. It will be argued that an appropriate policy needs to combine both of these approaches to secure multicultural citizenship.

Full paper download: Hsu C_citizenship approach for aboriginal adults.pdf

This paper is to find out the determinant factors of job satisfaction by analyzing the differences between genders about the effect of working condition to job satisfaction in Korea. The data of 4,216 paid-employed from the 9th Korean Labor and Income Panel(2006) has been used and individual characteristics, which can affect on job satisfaction, employment characteristics, working status, goodness of fitness and commitment in work, and social welfare benefit have been analyzed. First, women satisfied more than men in their job especially there were much differences in the types of work, working environment and time, and job stability. Second, women showed lower degree in social welfare benefit gained from employment. Third, goodness of fitness and commitment(R2=37.5%) and social welfare benefit in work(R2=23.0%) was the factors that affect most on job satisfaction. Each factors showed the differences between genders. Fourth, for men job stability affected much but for women it did not affect much even though their contingent work, day labor and poor working status. Summarily, we conclude that gender affects to job satisfaction with complex factors such as employment characteristics, social welfare benefit characteristics, working status etc. Therefore, there are much needs to develop women-friendly employment assurance policy, social welfare policy and services.

Full paper download: Lee I_working condition on job satisfaction.pdf

This paper examines how the Dutch welfare system has influenced its labor market during times of structural economic changes. The findings are as following. The evolution of the Dutch welfare system has led to a smoother restructuring process and a burdened welfare state during the 1970s and 1980s. The workers were greatly channeled to the insurance programs and through this the firms have gained higher flexibility. The later reform of the welfare system tried to keep flexibility while rid its harms, resulting to decreased unemployment rates, highered participation rates, and the economy regained high growth rates. The economic shocks experienced by today's Taiwan and the past Netherlands are similar. Although differences in their social and political conditions exist, there still are lessons to learn from the Dutch experience. First of all, the different welfare benefits in Taiwan should be rearranged into a consistent system to avoid pork barrel politics, complication of the system, and unnecessary public expenditures. Secondly, since the increase of part-time workers is inevitable, their job security should be protected by laws. Lastly, we can see from the Dutch experience that extra cost for economic restructuring is unavoidable. A way to keep off redundant costs is the cooperation between employers, labor, and the government in times of economic changes. Without lengthy negotiation, the restructuring process can be accelerated and costs less to the economy.

Full paper download: Wu P_impact of social welfare system.pdf

In the West, along with economic and social changes, public expectations of older people's later life have experienced considerable changes. Significantly, 'active ageing' has become a popular discourse in current western societies. In terms of active ageing, activation of ageing labour forces was seen as a means of moderating the financial burden of pensions and social care systems and threatened of labour force shortages. Consequently, older workers are expected to increase their working years by enhancing their employability and productivity (Carmel et al., 2007:389). In the meantime, Active Labour Market Policies (ALMPs) were introduced as an integrated way to address older workers' employment difficulties. Four strategies were identified as the major methods to achieve its goals: training, private sector incentive programmes, direct employment programmes and services and sanctions (Kluve, 2006; OECD, 2006). So far, both positive and negative effects of ALMPs have been found. Positive effects of private sector incentive and job-search assistance programmes have been demonstrated (OECD, 2005) and unemployment rates have been reduced apparently (Kluve and Schmidt, 2002). However, critics also strongly argued that ALMPs ignored the importance of job quality and tended to recklessly push people to work in insecure and low-paid jobs (Carmel, 2007; OECD, 2005). As for Taiwan, due to sharp decreases in birth rates and higher life expectancy, the Taiwanese population was ageing rapidly. It is predicted that Taiwanese society will face crucial and similar challenges as the Western societies being experiencing now. For instance, the numbers of old (aged 65 +) and young (aged 0-14) will be equal by 2016; moreover, till 2025, gaps between these two age groups will be increased to 21% and 11% respectively. This research aimed to evaluate the effects and transformability of ALMPs in terms of several significant factors: social model and welfare ideologies, social and ageing culture, global economy and employment structures. In this paper, emphasis has been on an overall framework by using secondary data analysis and documentary analysis; meanwhile, an empirical work is in progress. Finally, lessons which the Western ALMPs could give to the Taiwanese labour market policies will be critically discussed and analysed.

Full paper download: Huang L_active labour market policies.pdf

Taiwan and Hong Kong has been an aging society. Concerns on the well-being and welfare of elderly, and its possible burden on the society and public finance have been a major concern in both societies. While most of the debates are on the improvement of retirement protection scheme and long-term care, relatively, lesser attention has been paid on elderly employment as an alternative for enhancing their socio-economic security. This paper will use Taiwan and Hong Kong as cases studies, discussing the background, the feasibilities and potentials of this alternative.

The two societies share some similarities: the weakening of family and kinship as a means of protection though filial piety is always emphasized in a Chinese society; rapid economic restructuring resulting in the hallowing of manufacturing sector and the increasing importance of service sectors; immature and ineffective public retirement protection system; stereotyping and hence discrimination of elderly but at the same time with stronger calling for an active and healthy aging for the elderly. All these explain the importance of elderly employment as a means to tackle elderly poverty, retirement protection and social inclusion of them through work.

Nevertheless, the elderly labor participation rates in both societies are still low, and policies to promote such alternative are still sporadic. The paper will outline and compare these policies. Making reference to similar strategies in other countries, we will discuss the possible suggestions in strengthening the policies in promoting elderly employment.

There is much complexity of factors that have impacts on job-seeking behaviors of claimants of Minimum Living Standard Guarantee System for Urban Residents (MLSGS-UR). Institutional arrangements have effects on their job-seeking behaviors and decisions by means of their influences over individual subjective and cognitive variables. Using the methods of survey, interview and documentary analysis, this study firstly analyzes what subjective variables have statistically significant impact on the job-search intensity of clients of MLSGS-UR in Shanghai, and then explores the impacts of related institutional arrangements on job-seeking intensity, and finally, the author proposes some policy suggestions for improving MLSGS-UR.

Child poverty policy has been paid attention as a social investment and preventive strategy recently. Especially, employment strategy tends to be more emphasized than simple income maintenance in social investment states and workfare discussions. Also, Studies about the effect of employment strategy find that maternal employment is more effective in reducing child poverty.

However, those studies fail to consider two points that can affect outcomes. One is the characteristics of labour market and the other is who provides care service. First, each state may have different level of wage gap or occupational segregation by gender and educational attainment, which result in different outcomes of "escape-from-poverty-through-work" strategy. Second, how care service is distributed among public, private and informal sector could have impact on the welfare of children through care service cost and stratification of service quality. 

Concern about child poverty is increasing lately in Korea. Weak institutional welfare and increase of inequality, younger workers' unemployment and family dissolution in Korea has endangered household with children. Thus, in this paper, child poverty rate and trends are looked around first, and then the relationship between maternal work and child poverty is examined focusing on characteristics of labour market and care service provider. 

As a result of analysis, first, households with children don't have higher risk of poverty than those without children, but poverty rate for households with pre-school children has been increasing slightly in 2000s in Korea. Second, maternal employment has lesser effect on poverty reduction in Korea relative to other OECD countries, which seems to result from higher wage gap by gender and large share of irregular and low pay jobs in mothers' work. Third, in case of care service, working parents depend highly on informal sector such as other family members and private sector in Korea, which leads to larger burden of care cost among low-income households. Therefore, not simply encouraging work, but gender equity policies as well as active labour market policies are needed to use maternal employment as a child poverty policy.

Full paper download: Kim W_child poverty and maternal employment.pdf

The purpose of this research was to explore the employees' parental involvement and parental responsibility with the benefit of corporate childcare policy. Ten interviewees who were from double-career families were selected because they had at least one young child aged below 6 and were using childcare services provided by corporations. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews. Three issues were discussed in this paper:

A real balance between work and family? The purpose of corporate childcare services was to reduce employees' stress between work and family. Extend childcare time might release employee's working stress, however, it may not benefit to children's social development and parent-children relationships. Parents' responsibilities could not be excluded from their childcare services. A new form of Elite cluster - dual roles of colleagues and parents Employees who used corporate childcare services also played the roles of parents in the children's nurseries. The colleagues organized an informal parents' association who would help each others in caring children. With the relationships of informal parents' association, the employees had more opportunities to meet and communicate with colleagues in other departments. Corporate and nurseries working together; he corporate and affiliated nurseries were partners. They organize family activities suitable for their employees. The nurseries provided key issues/ topics to promote employees' parenting. An outdoor activity arranged by nurseries attracted children and their families because they considered it is a good opportunity to build up friendships and the employees believed that it also benefited to their relationships with other colleagues. The partnership of companies and nurseries created a win-win strategy.

Full paper download: Yeh Y_parental imvolvement and responsibility.pdf

Background Informal unpaid carers for people with ID are usually female and mothers. Recent Western literature has focused attention on the concept of work-family reconciliation including the gender issue. Without doubt, there are mothers of people with ID who leave their paid work due to the conflict between work and family care-giving. We examine the effects of care work on full-time employed, part-time employed and non-employed mothers by studying whether there are differences between these three groups in terms of social demographic context, quality of life, various factors related to their involvement in labor force and their QOL.

Materials and Methods We use data from the 2008 census survey on ID in Hsin-Chu City, Taiwan that included the primary family carers of 796 adults (aged 18 or older) with ID who were living with their families. In total, 302 of them were the adults' mothers and were of working age (younger than 65). These 302 mother carers became our study population. The survey package contained standardized scales and collected carer health, social support level, QOL, use of family support services and the characteristic data.

Results It was found that 37.4% of the mothers of working age were involved in full-time employment, 16.2% of them were involved in part-time employment and 46.4% were non-employed. The statistics revealed that, compared to their employed counterparts, the non-employed mothers were older, had older adult children, had children with a lower level of ADL, had received less years of education, had a lower level of health status, had a lower level of social support, and were more likely to be from a low income family. Logistic regression analysis showed that the factors that are significantly related to the mothers' employment status were the adult child's functioning in terms of ADL, the mother s' age, and the family income. Compared with the Taiwanese population in general, the mean QOL score for the mothers in all three of these three groups were lower for all the four domains assessed (physical, psychological, social relations and environment). When comparing between these three groups, the mean score for the overall QOL and for each domain (with the exception of the domain of social relationships) were all significantly lower among the non-employed mothers than among the full-timely employed mothers. Surprisingly, after acknowledging the effect of health status, family income and social support of the participants, logistic regression analysis did not reveal that the mothers' employment status was a significant predictor of the working age mothers' quality of life. We also found that the mothers' involvement in employment was determined by their age, adult child's ADL and family income.

Conclusions The present study is a start in addressing the issue of paid work and unpaid work among mothers of people with ID in Taiwanese society. Perhaps these results can become a benchmark for similar measurements carried out by women's movement. These results may then help to frame policy efforts related to the current advocacy for the creation of a supportive environment for lifelong woman carers.

Full paper download: Chou Y_employed and non-employed mothers.pdf

Recent approaches in drug prevention have increasingly recognized the vital role of parents as risk or protective agents in youth development. However, programs that focus on Chinese families are still limited, and few have adopted robust research methodologies to demonstrate its efficacy. This paper will present the results of a two- phase project on Hong Kong parents with reference to anti-drug work and discuss the impact of the findings on drug prevention policies and strategies. Phase I of the project was a large-scale survey on 5,612 parents and explored the motivational factors and barriers to their participation in drug-prevention programs in Hong Kong. The findings facilitated the development of a drug-prevention program that was theory-driven and tailored for Hong Kong parents who claimed their adolescent children manifested at risk behavior. Phase II of the project was a randomized-control-trial study which involved over 200 parents of at risk youths to finish a multi-session education program. The evaluation study collected convincing evidence to demonstrate the efficacy of the program because after training, the parents in the experimental groups generally performed better than the control group parents in terms of knowledge of drugs, attitude towards drugs, sense of self-efficacy, perceived family cohesion and management of parenting stress. While the findings confirmed the usefulness of this program and attracted additional funds for public dissemination, much more needs to be done to effectively mobilize parents as partners in preventing and fighting youth drug abuse. The paper will also discuss the implications of the project in theory, research as well as anti-drug policies and services.

Some researchers have been convinced that welfare developments in East Asia, especially Japan and Korea, can be fitted into the existing three worlds of welfare model, while others have insisted that existing welfare regime theories are not able to explain East Asian welfare regimes. This article assumes that we need to go beyond both of these traditional explanations. In the welfare state research fields, welfare regime approaches tend to focus on specific contextual conditions and cross-national differences. As a result, they tend to overemphasize history at the expense of theory. This article tries to combine deductive causal modeling with an institutional-historical context by identifying the contingent rent political game model and deducing important characteristics of East Asian welfare regime from this model. This model opens out the possibility of change in East Asian welfare regimes following the processes of democratization and globalization. Details of this are given in the conclusion.

Full paper download: Hong K_beyond typology.pdf

Increasing number of studies has focused on categorizing Asian countries based on welfare programs. However, they relied on typologies based on Western countries or covered only a small number of Asian countries. A few studies examined Asian countries without the Western counterparts. As an alternative, we examined the overall development of the welfare programs of the nine Asian countries and 17 Western countries together. Previous studies have examined stratification effects, governmental roles, and financing methods of welfare programs. We developed a weflare state typoloy with the contents of welfare programs (program types, coverage, contributor, contribution type, benefit, and education). First, among both Asian and Western countries together, we found the three groups based on welfare program contents: (1) Hong Kong and Australia, (2) Provident fund system countries, (3) social insurance system countries relatively concerning health, (4) social insurance system countries with diverse old age pension programs. Second, among the Asian countries, in terms of the welfare program contents, we found three groups: (1) provident fund type countries (Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore), (2) social insurance type countries (Japan, Korea, Philippines, Taiwan, Thailand), and (3) Hong Kong as an outlier. In terms of the welfare expenditure composition, we found a strong contrast between Asian and Western countries: the Western countries' focus on social security and the Asian countries on education. The present study suggests that we should examine both program contents and welfare efforts and cover Asian and Western experiences to understand peculiarities and similarities of each country's historical experiences in welfare institutions better.

Full paper download: Park C_asian welfare regimes.pdf

We undertake a comparative work to incorporate some heuristic instruments (in particular, from Esping-Andersen and other scholars) into the debate on societies that have belatedly or slowly begun the task of constructing welfare institutions. We introduce the comparison of Korean and Mexican welfare regimes. Mexico has paradoxically secured the dualized character of its system, with the construction of new institutions that serve to further embed the stratification of the social security and protection system: A stratified social security system, and also a stratified protection system for the poor. A good part of the previous Mexican dualism was due to omission (exclusion of rural workers and informal urban workers); now the dualism is institutionalized in a notably stratified social system. In Mexico there is not a strong political coalition in support of the social citizenship, but rather a conservative coalition has been created that seeks to carefully administer the limited benefits that are offered to the population in conditions of poverty, and the weakened de-comodification of the social institutions. Korea has been abandoning a residual system and can be placed in various characteristics of the conservative system (familialization) with some tendencies that would foster a social democratic pattern; but it is strongly limited by the private presence (comodifying) in health care. However, this limit will be fought by the gradual creation of groups (coalition) that promote the integral citizenship and promote an increase in rights. We can also mention the institutionalization of universalism, linked to limited markets and governed by public action (health), with declining familialization (but still socially strong). Korea is clearly a hybrid case.

Full paper download: Lomeli E_Korean and Mexican welfare regimes.pdf

China has been undergoing large-scale socio-economic transformation in the past three decades. With the shift from a planned economy to a market one, China's social security system has been transformed fundamentally. In order to make the inefficient state-owned enterprises to survive in the competitive market economy, the Chinese government has made great efforts to transform the traditional danwei (work unit)-based social security system into a multiple-tier social security system based on social insurance programs since the mid-1980s. However, the embryonic social insurance system has proven inadequate and inefficient to cope with the mounting unemployment and urban poverty caused by the reform of SOEs, and left more urban people outside the social protection system, which imposed a negative impact on social stability. In the late 1990s, to pacify the vulnerable social groups consisting of laid-off workers, unemployed, retirees, and poor farmers, the Chinese government started to reform its public assistance policy, and establish a social assistance system with the minimum living standard scheme (MLSS) its core. Focusing on the policy pertinent to the MLSS in China in general and in Guangdong in particular, this article aims to examine the social assistance policy in China and its impact on social development. It argues that though the MLSS indicates a statist approach to social development, the residual nature of the MLSS and the localization of the financial responsibility have hampered the role of social assistance policy in promoting people's wellbeing and social development in China.

Full paper download: Ngok K_social assistance policy.pdf

Welfare regimes are distinctive sets of institutional arrangements that govern the creation and allocation of welfare and its stratification effects. Welfare regimes analysis seeks to explain the historical determinants and stratification effects of welfare regimes in different geographical and historical settings. 'First generation' welfare regimes studies sought to explain variation in the welfare states of advanced capitalist countries in Western Europe and North America (Esping-Andersen 1987, 1990). More recent scholarship has sought to extend welfare regimes analysis to other economic and regional settings (see, for example, Gough and Wood 2006). It is suggestive that within the growing literature on welfare regimes, there have been few if any attempts to theorize welfare regimes in formerly state-socialist settings (for an exception, see Deacon 2000). But a standard assumption of welfare regimes analysis is that a country's welfare institutions exist and develop in interdependent relation with other social, political, economic, and cultural institutions. It is, by extension, reasonable to expect that the evolution and involution of state-socialism significantly affects the development of welfare regimes in the wake of state socialism. In this paper I extend the conceptual and theoretical foundations of welfare regimes analysis to explain divergence and convergence in the development of welfare regimes in Viet Nam and China.

Full paper download: London J_welfare regimes in state socialism.pdf