Abstracts & Papers in Stream 5

The age of drinking onset among youths has been decreasing over the years in Korea, and regular alcohol use is on the rise. Heavy or risky alcohol use in early age can result in adverse effects. These include poor academic performance, emotional problems leading to depression and aggressive behavior, and poor interpersonal relationships with others that may continue to their adulthood. The purpose of this study is to examine factors that influence risky drinking among Korean adolescents, and to compare these factors between different age groups, namely middle and high school students. A stratified national sample of 1,420 middle school students and 1,312 high school students were included in the study. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire that inquired about drinking frequency and quantity, peer drinking, parent attitude toward drinking, and health belief. Study results showed that peer drinking frequency and individual health belief were influential factors for drinking frequency for both adolescent groups, but parental attitude was influential only for the middle school students and gender was a significant factor only for the high school group. Second, peer drinking was a predicting factor for alcohol consumption for both groups, and parental attitude and health belief predicted alcohol consumption for the younger group and gender predicted that for the older group. Third, 7.7% and 40.2% of middle and high school students, respectively, engaged in risky drinking (consuming more than 5 drinks), and for both groups peer drinking frequency was found to be an influential factor. The study findings indicated that different factors influence drinking behavior between two groups, and suggest the need for early prevention programs as well as differentiated program foci specific to each age group

Full paper download: Kim S_alcohol use among Korean adolescents.pdf

In this paper I will talk about psychological domestic violence occurring between husbands and wives in today's rapid development of China. Psychological violence as a form of domestic violence is very common in all forms such as physical, psychological or emotional, sexual and financial aspects (Horley, 1988; Kelly, 1988; Mooney, 2000; Smith, 1989; Yan, 2004). Indeed, in one survey in the UK half of women (48%) experienced frightening threats (Walby, 2004), while in China the phenomenon of psychological violence appears to be widespread: according to the Police Report Centre in Dalian City, 70 or 80 per cent of cases, among 834 cases of domestic violence, dealt with psychological violence (Tang, 2003). In this paper my study, with both quantitative and qualitative approaches, investigated ridicule as a form of psychological domestic violence occurring between intimates who were husbands and wives and its impact. The results of the survey (n=232: women=128; men=104) and the qualitative interviews (n=53: women=35; men=18) showed that the phenomenon of ridicule as a verbal abuse occurs between Chinese couples in the home and the public. The results of both data revealed that there is a difference in the use/experience of this behaviour between them. In particular, there is a gap between the results of both data. For example, the results of the qualitative interviews indicated that husbands may be likely actually to use this negative behaviour to their wives, while the results of the survey reported that wives may be use such behaviour more than their husbands in the home. The analysis of these results suggests that a gender difference linked to the division of labour, social policy and culture may influence ridicule behaviour used/experienced by husbands and wives. This study differs from the previous Chinese studies because it found that ridicule as verbal abuse may be used frequently by husbands and wives and because it explored this negative behaviour by both sexes.

This study examines the social policy in Cambodia by casting light on the activity of CVAP(Cambodia Veterans Assistance Program), one of the Cambodia's peace keeping policies which was designed to reduce the military budget by collecting de-mobilized soldiers. Japanese government committed CVAP since its beginning though withdrew from it in September 2007. The main hypothesis is why the difference has been caused that some can succeed while some others cannot. The JICA Report analyses the poor soldiers are ones who are weak by nature, however it seems it's too naïve to conclude it. Supporting self-independence does not merely mean providing skills training for de-mobilized soldiers for independent living but that it shall/ could also offer job opportunities and guarantees a stable income, in case of failure. I discuss this theme by providing by intensive semi-structured interview data, informal dialogues and observations at individual former soldier's house.