Abstracts & Papers in Stream 5

The purpose of this study was to make a comparative analysis of the level of life control by parents, family rules of living and public manners of elementary school students from three different countries. The subjects in this study were 5,249 fourth and sixth graders from Seoul, Tokyo and Beijing. The major findings of the study were as follows:

The Chinese parents held their children's lives under the most tight control, followed by the Korean and Japanese ones. family rules of living were most strict in China, followed by Japan and Korea. In terms of the level of public manners, there were gaps among the nations as well. The Chinese students were most courteous, followed by their counterparts in Korea and then in Japan. Lastly, it was clearly demonstrated that the elementary students' appropriate public manners had interaction effect relationship with their parents' ability to control their behavior and family rules, being the case in Japan. In other words, students who displayed good behavior at home, but getting lots of parental control showed poor behavior out in public. The efforts by this study to compare life control by parents, family rules and school children's public manners in the three different countries, to examine life control by parents in parent- child relationship, family rules of living and to look into the characteristics of the three factors are expected to contribute to getting an accurate grip on the public manners of school students from the three nations.

Dramatic changes have been taken place in social services in China in recent decades. The 'over-burdened' government retreated from the role of an omnipotent provider to a regulator. The re-emergence of 'minban' (meaning operated by the citizen) school is a salient example demonstrating these changes. This paper will analyze the operation logic of 'minban' secondary school situated in the unique institutional context from the new institutional perspective. The concept of institutional environment and the institutional logic are integrated to provide a framework explaining the development and function of 'minban' school in social transformation. On one hand, the multiple institutional environments, including the controlled decentralization of governments, the investment-familism of consumer choice, impact 'minban' secondary schools via legitimacy and interest mechanism. On the other hand, the 'minban' secondary school adapts and functions in the context, as well as shaping the environment with its own strategies. In addition, the operation of 'minban' secondary school is not only qualified by the external environment, but also based on the institutional image by itself. The processes and conditions facing 'minban' secondary school in China reveal the special organizational dynamics under rapid social transformation. The emerging problems and social implications of the 'minban secondary school required our attention. This paper will describe and analyze the development and problems facing 'minban' education in China. It will also assess the dynamic process between the institutional environment and organization, and contribute to the theoretical application of neo-institutionalism.

The paper focuses on the formation of gender equity education policy in recent education reform in Taiwan. Gender equity education in Taiwan has been influenced by many factors, such as the developments and changes of politics, economy and society. The political, economical and cultural developments and changes also partially contributed to the flourish of social movements including women's movements, which provided the fundamental basis for giving an impetus to the development of gender equity education. The interactions of politics, socio-culture and economy resulted in the political transition of a democratic society that facilitated the diverse ideologies and people's enthusiasm for involving in social movements.

In the case of women's movements, the improvement of economic status increased the opportunities for women to receive higher education. These highly educated elite women who held a desire to revolute society then promoted the emergence of organised women movements and finally formed a trend of women's liberation. This trend has pervaded from women's movements to education. This paper will draw on parts of the results of the thesis to distinguish five features of the development of women's movements and gender relevant policies in Taiwan: a) they are very closely linked to the political development and tend to make changes within existing legal system; b) the political party competition is favourable for the development of women's movements; c) the development of government policies in relation to gender issues follows the model that from bottom-up to top-down; d) there is a trend that from specific policies toward gender mainstreaming of the development of government policies and; e) the ideologies of gender education policies seem to have a 'homogeneity-binary-diversity' tendency which accords with the directions in western feminist thought after the 1970s.

Nowadays, there are many words which have the term such as 'multi-cultural', 'multi-ethnicity'. Those are usually representing diversity of one society. In reality, past 10 years, foreigners who reside in South Korea are rapidly increasing from 95,778 (1994) to 698,161 (2006). It changes Korean society a lot and it is time for changing attitude of Korean. At the same time, there are many academic papers which deals with the people who reside in South Korea, such as 'New settlers'(North Korean refugee defector), migration workers, woman migrants. However, most of the projects by government are limited to the 'labor' since they have to focus on support policies.

In reality, the reason that foreigners come to South Korea is not limited to 'labor'. Nowadays, not only goods and labor forces but also images, knowledge, and education can be the factors for the international migration. Especially, in the case of 'study abroad', from past to present, It was general that people go abroad to study from East Asia countries to Western countries, to the contrast that, there are influx of student migration to Asian countries nowadays. It is easy to see foreign student in and out of school and there are many ways to communicate with them.

'Student migration' is use as 'Yoo hak' or liuxue(留學) in East Asia. However, the concept of 'student migration' is focused on 'Hak'('學'), so it can not show the diversity of student migration fully. Also, 'Yoo'('留') means 'stay for a while' which is very ambiguous meaning. It makes people regard student migrants as just visitors so they don't pay attention to their life and adjustment. In fact, student migration takes at least 6 months to 5-6 years. In addition, some student migrants regard their migration experience as spring board toward their long term migration so student migration gives considerably strong impact on receiving country. Nowadays, Korea try to attract many foreign student by student migration project, 'Study Korea' to become a 'receiving country' instead of 'sending country. For that, countries have to change the concept of those students as a migrants, instead of visitors to become a receiving country.

This study aims to discuss about 'student migration' which is undervalued in East Asia. Also it aims to consider existing theory that based on 'Asia->Western country' pattern is available to explain this phenomenon. Most literatures of Asia and Western countries are focused on long term migration only. However, big differences between past and present are 'increasing number of short term migration' and big impacts of short term migration on receiving country and sending country. Still, student migration is not considered fully since it is not long term migration, but Western countries start to pay attention to the student migrants as receiving countries. Also, it considers student migration policies between Asian countries instead of 'Asia to Western' through focusing on the student migration between two Asian countries, China and Korea.

Full paper download: Song Y_chinese student in Korea.pdf

This project targeted policies on poverty alleviation and educational equality. In Hong Kong, there are 150 new arrivals from China daily, about 9% of whom are children aged 0 to 4. The median domestic household income of new arrival families is well below that of the Hong Kong general population. To break the cycles of disadvantage, to tackle intergenerational poverty, to address educational inequality and to build up social capital, this project aimed to develop a culturally relevant, evidence-based primary preventive strategy to empower new immigrant parents to teach their preschool children learning skills, so they could take responsibility for their children's education. The programme was conducted in small group format, using modelling and role playing to ensure the parents' mastery of necessary child stimulation skills. A needs assessment was conducted to guide the development of the programme. The pilot version of the programme has been implemented and the participating parents reported positive changes in their children's behaviour, parent-child relationship, and learning. Programme design, implementation and process issues were discussed, in comparison to a similar programme being conducted in Australia. This project is a step towards evidence-based policy, emphasizing primary prevention through early intervention for young children and their parents.