Abstracts & Papers in Stream 3

The proposed paper develops further a theme presented at the plenary of the 4th conference. On that occasion, I discussed the prevalence of filial piety principles in social policy directed to the provision of long-term care of the frail elderly. I suggested that differences between policies in east Asia and policies in Europe, and even policies in the United States, were not as great as is often presumed. I have been attempting to give empirical foundation to this by looking at the role of social assistance in financing LTC, including in countries with long-term care insurance schemes - for example Germany. I have also looked at the extent to which authorities seek to enforce filial piety and to reclaim social assistance from "liable" adult children - here I look at France, Germany and the USA. Evidence from east Asia is so far anecdotal and/or ad hoc. However, I shall also present my findings for Japan, Taiwan, Korea and even for the PRC. What is clear is that what data shows is but the tip of an iceberg. Formal enforcement is rare. Moral pressure means that "liable relatives" pay up in most cases, and so it is private transfers not reimbursed public transfers that remain important.

Full paper download: Casey B_role of family in long term care.pdf

Resources, resources and resources

This paper forms a part of PhD research to examine the diversity of the service provision each country has contributed to the long-term care market pluralism of older people between the East Asia (Taiwan) and West Europe (England and the Netherlands). Consequentially, this paper has based on the views of 115 care actors in the three countries studied. The research found that the pattern in the care market pluralism, socio-economic wellbeing of older people and the service approach has impact on the quality of care provision. Both the Netherlands and Taiwan evidenced mainly not-for-profit care market were likely to stimulate market competition with more creative care services than England. Specific points for future policy and practice are signalled in the concluding notes of this paper.

Full paper download: Chen H_long term care provision.pdf

Reconciliation of employment and care for children has been a widely discussed topic in many countries. However, when it is working relatives who are caring for an older or a disabled family member, the attention from both policy-makers and researchers has remained limited. Only recently has the public interest in ageing societies from different parts of the world started to recognise the specific life situations and support needs of working carers. This paper is based on a joint international research project (titled 'WOCAWO: Working Carers and Caring Workers: Making Paid Employment and Care Responsibilities Compatible?') that is starting during Autumn 2008. Partners of this project include National Yang-Ming University (prof. Yueh-Ching Chou) from Taiwan, University of Jyväskylä (Dr. Teppo Kröger) from Finland and University of Leeds (prof. Sue Yeandle) from Britain. The paper will review the existing literature and secondary data on the situation of working carers from these three countries and present the data collection methods and research settings of the project, including the use of both quantitative and qualitative methods. The research project will study difficulties as well as functioning solutions associated with reconciliation of paid work and informal care. It will also research the various ways working carers construct their identities while reconciling their worker and carer roles within the constraints and resources brought by welfare policies, cultural norms and labour market structures. Conducted in the context of three different cultures and welfare regimes, the project will use a comparative and collaborative approach.

Full paper download: Kroger T_combining working and caring.pdf

This paper investigates the influencing factors of marriage duration among the middle aged and elderly in Taiwan. The micro data used is from the Survey of Health and Living Status of the Middle Aged and Elderly in Taiwan (SHLS), which contain detailed information of individual, family structure, health, social support, employment, and economic status. The Weibull models are used to estimate the hazard rates of marriage duration, and the hazard events include divorce (included separated) and spouse decease. Further, this paper also examines the effect of unobserved heterogeneity on estimated individual hazard rates of marriage duration. First, for the cases of divorce and spouse decease, the empirical results find that people with poor health, and partner with better education have a higher hazard rate of divorce and spouse decease. In contrast, people with higher income, and the elderly

with more children have a lower hazard rate of divorce and spouse decease. The empirical results also confirm that, after considering unobserved heterogeneity, most estimated coefficients on the marriage hazard regressors are larger in magnitude that the corresponding coefficients in the reference model. Second, for the case of divorce only, the interesting results include: people aged 60 to 64, Aboriginals, people with better education, people with poor health, and partner with better education have a higher hazard rate of divorce. In contrast, the Buddhist, people with higher income, and the elderly with more children have a lower hazard rate of divorce. However, the effects of unobserved heterogeneity become less serious and indifferent in this case.

Full paper download: Hung W_marriage among middle aged and elderly.pdf