Abstracts & Papers in Session 3

East Asian Database Project Part I

What We Have What We Need (Review of basic data for East Asian Comparative studies).

East Asian Database Project (EADP) is a project for creating Database for Comparative East Asian Social Policy Studies, which was established in October 2007 in order to exchange data, knowledge and other resources for comparative studies.

There has not been much information systematically shared regarding the volume, the author and the kind of studies in the field of Comparative East Asian social policy studies. Thus, EADP aims at collecting and organizing the quantitative and qualitative data in the wider areas relating to social policies in East Asian countries.

This year's panel session will focus on sharing the quantitative data on childcare and elderly care of each country. The basic data on demographic figures, employment and poverty are also reviewed. Based on the data we collected, we would like to discuss issues of definition and challenges in comparative East Asian policy studies with all the participants. By doing so, EADP will make a valuable contribution to enhance our understanding of East Asian Social Policy.

Panel Session 2008

Firstly, in our panel session, each member will make a short presentation (10-15minutes) regarding the existing data as follows. The focus of presentations will include the availability of data, the definitions of categories, and issues for comparative studies.

  1. the rate of aging and fertility
  2. the percentage of households
  3. women's employment rate
  4. poverty rate of women, children, and elderly
  5. childcare: the percentage of facilities and users
  6. elderly care: the percentage of facilities and users

Secondly, we will have discussion on issues of definition and challenges in comparative East Asian policy studies. We'd like to share what the problems of data are in comparative East Asian policy studies after the presentations.

Thirdly, we will introduce the website of EADP which people can access the data and information collected and also for EADP's activities

The definition of a social safety net is changing in Japan; it can be defined with two aspects. One aspect is a series of social insurances and social security being provided by the government as well as by private organizations, namely social security, universal health insurance, unemployment insurance, etc. Social assistance program is one of them, and it is considered the last resort in Japan. Another aspect of a social safety net is community-based initiatives being organized by the effort of local councils of social welfare, welfare commissioners, and other community-based organizations. Those community-based approaches have a long history, but it is the Social Welfare Act of 2000 that set a base for those activities to be more profound. Today's social safety net is interwoven by those two aspects. The fineness of a social safety net is, therefore, defined how well those two aspects work together especially as a result of public-private partnerships. The depth of a social safety net, on the other hand, is defined by the work of welfare commissioners and social workers within a community. This paper explores the changing definition of a social safety net and the roles of welfare commissioners and social workers in Japan. Providing an accountable safety net is no-longer a solo obligation of the government. It is more important to consider a safety net as a result of local governance (i.e. collaboration of the public sector, private sector, and community/informal sector). At the end, the paper suggests empowerment evaluation as a way to develop a collaborative relationship among them.

In this study, I question whether social enterprise can significantly help work integration of persons with disabilities (or PWDs). Particularly, I analyze the case of Korea which recently passed a bill (or Social Enterprise Support Law, SESL) setting the disabled as one of four target groups. Unlike former state-led policies, not all but some cases showed that social enterprises can create numerous decent jobs for the disabled if some conditions are met. The result illustrates four issues. First, people with disabilities are excluded in the labor market: not only their chance of getting a job is more restricted than other socially disadvantaged groups, but also the insufficient jobs allotted to the disabled are unevenly distributed by the type and severity of illness. Second, the tendency of state-led initiate distinguishes Korean social enterprises both from European ones and U.S. non-profit organizations. Third, although people with disabilities were excluded from the legislation process, they actively adopted themselves in order to participate as a social enterprise. Fourth, networking with other organizations, especially with for-profit firms is essential for work integration of the disabled. By this study, I hope Korea's experience to be a worthy guideline for other Asian countries in initiating social enterprises which stands for the disabled. If further cross-national studies are followed, it will be much beneficial in modeling Asian disabled-centered social enterprises.

Full paper download:Kim Y_disabilities in social enterprises.pdf

This paper focuses on the functions of the bureaucrat-led network in the local disability policy and its leadership in Japan. The local government in Japan is required to formulate its own disability policy and implement it. However, there exist not a few "wicked problems" that contain cross-cutting, complex issue related to disability policy and existing social resources solely cannot solve them. It is the Community Independence Support Conference (CISC) provided for by the independence support law for persons with disabilities that addresses this issue. In 2006, Japanese Government partially delegated the authority of decision making of disability policy to the local government. The discretion was given to local government that enables to formulate its own disability policy. To use the discretion effectively, CISC was set up in each local government. This CISC is a mandated "bureaucrat-led network" which includes persons with disability, their family, those who support them, and administrative bodies under the local government. Its aim is to try to create the policy partnership at local level to solve these "wicked problems". The local government, traditionally based on hierarchy, will host this network style council, CISC. Therefore, a lot of confusion has occurred these days. Some local governments which don't understand the importance of CISC are reluctant to hold this meeting. Others make good use of this CISC as brains in the policy formation process for working on their "wicked problems". As a result, the disparity of level of disability policy formation among local governments began to widen. This paper explores the functions of CISC and desirable leadership to lead CISC. This analysis will contribute to identifying challenges in the disability policy formation process in local government.

Full paper download: Takebata H_bureaucrat-led network in local disability policy.pdf

With acceleration of rapid economic development, there is a clear improvement in the livelihoods of the disabled in China. The improvement in the livelihoods of the disabled in the economic well-being has enhanced the general treatment of physical, intellectual, or psychological impairment and the overall participation of the disabled in society. However, the clear improvement in their livelihoods generally comes from the benefit of economic development, not from the relevant role of social policy that is specifically directed towards people with disabilities. In particular, the Chinese government in the field of social services has not paid closer attention to the requests or needs of the disabled in their livelihoods; they are not the main target population of social services in China and are still regarded as "people excluded from the policy mainstreaming. With respect to the social model of disability in China, this paper argues that the Chinese social policy will require a great effort to make major improvements in the following; promoting their physical and mental health, reducing exclusion by society, and promoting the participation of people with disabilities in society.

The proposed paper develops further a theme presented at the plenary of the 4th conference. On that occasion, I discussed the prevalence of filial piety principles in social policy directed to the provision of long-term care of the frail elderly. I suggested that differences between policies in east Asia and policies in Europe, and even policies in the United States, were not as great as is often presumed. I have been attempting to give empirical foundation to this by looking at the role of social assistance in financing LTC, including in countries with long-term care insurance schemes - for example Germany. I have also looked at the extent to which authorities seek to enforce filial piety and to reclaim social assistance from "liable" adult children - here I look at France, Germany and the USA. Evidence from east Asia is so far anecdotal and/or ad hoc. However, I shall also present my findings for Japan, Taiwan, Korea and even for the PRC. What is clear is that what data shows is but the tip of an iceberg. Formal enforcement is rare. Moral pressure means that "liable relatives" pay up in most cases, and so it is private transfers not reimbursed public transfers that remain important.

Full paper download: Casey B_role of family in long term care.pdf

Resources, resources and resources

This paper forms a part of PhD research to examine the diversity of the service provision each country has contributed to the long-term care market pluralism of older people between the East Asia (Taiwan) and West Europe (England and the Netherlands). Consequentially, this paper has based on the views of 115 care actors in the three countries studied. The research found that the pattern in the care market pluralism, socio-economic wellbeing of older people and the service approach has impact on the quality of care provision. Both the Netherlands and Taiwan evidenced mainly not-for-profit care market were likely to stimulate market competition with more creative care services than England. Specific points for future policy and practice are signalled in the concluding notes of this paper.

Full paper download: Chen H_long term care provision.pdf

Reconciliation of employment and care for children has been a widely discussed topic in many countries. However, when it is working relatives who are caring for an older or a disabled family member, the attention from both policy-makers and researchers has remained limited. Only recently has the public interest in ageing societies from different parts of the world started to recognise the specific life situations and support needs of working carers. This paper is based on a joint international research project (titled 'WOCAWO: Working Carers and Caring Workers: Making Paid Employment and Care Responsibilities Compatible?') that is starting during Autumn 2008. Partners of this project include National Yang-Ming University (prof. Yueh-Ching Chou) from Taiwan, University of Jyväskylä (Dr. Teppo Kröger) from Finland and University of Leeds (prof. Sue Yeandle) from Britain. The paper will review the existing literature and secondary data on the situation of working carers from these three countries and present the data collection methods and research settings of the project, including the use of both quantitative and qualitative methods. The research project will study difficulties as well as functioning solutions associated with reconciliation of paid work and informal care. It will also research the various ways working carers construct their identities while reconciling their worker and carer roles within the constraints and resources brought by welfare policies, cultural norms and labour market structures. Conducted in the context of three different cultures and welfare regimes, the project will use a comparative and collaborative approach.

Full paper download: Kroger T_combining working and caring.pdf

This paper investigates the influencing factors of marriage duration among the middle aged and elderly in Taiwan. The micro data used is from the Survey of Health and Living Status of the Middle Aged and Elderly in Taiwan (SHLS), which contain detailed information of individual, family structure, health, social support, employment, and economic status. The Weibull models are used to estimate the hazard rates of marriage duration, and the hazard events include divorce (included separated) and spouse decease. Further, this paper also examines the effect of unobserved heterogeneity on estimated individual hazard rates of marriage duration. First, for the cases of divorce and spouse decease, the empirical results find that people with poor health, and partner with better education have a higher hazard rate of divorce and spouse decease. In contrast, people with higher income, and the elderly

with more children have a lower hazard rate of divorce and spouse decease. The empirical results also confirm that, after considering unobserved heterogeneity, most estimated coefficients on the marriage hazard regressors are larger in magnitude that the corresponding coefficients in the reference model. Second, for the case of divorce only, the interesting results include: people aged 60 to 64, Aboriginals, people with better education, people with poor health, and partner with better education have a higher hazard rate of divorce. In contrast, the Buddhist, people with higher income, and the elderly with more children have a lower hazard rate of divorce. However, the effects of unobserved heterogeneity become less serious and indifferent in this case.

Full paper download: Hung W_marriage among middle aged and elderly.pdf

After the Financial Crisis in 1997, the government of Hong Kong Special Administrative Region introduced a series of welfare-to-work programs with an intent to reduce increasing welfare rolls and move people back to work. After some trial projects, the government launched the enhanced Community Work Experience and Training Programme in 2005-06 which combines work requirements with training. This program radically departs from the traditional "Community Work Programme" where training component is absent. Despite the abundance of normative theories and discourses revolving around promoting welfare recipients' self-reliance, rigorous empirical examinations of concrete measures such as the Community Work Experience and Training Programmes are rare in East Asia. With the aid of a longitudinal survey of ECW and CW participants, this presentation looks at the comparative strengths and weaknesses of these programs. We found that the ECW has some benefits to offer compared with traditional welfare-to-work programme such as CW. The research is intended to contribute succinctly to the literature concerning the separate evaluations of community service work experience programs and job training. Furthermore, we believe research in this area will shed light on imminent welfare reform issues not only in Hong Kong, but also in neighboring regions, such as Singapore and Taiwan.

Housing Reconstruction in Mountain Village: China-Japan Joint Research Project For China WenChuan earthquake Social Reconstruction

After 66 days of 5.12 WenChuan earthquake, in Beijing, it was confirmed to call out the round-table conference and to learn each other about Reconstruction from the earthquakes. The necessity of an interdisciplinary (Urban Planning, Housing and Social Work) joint research was pointed out. In August China-Japan Joint Research team by Nanjing University, Japan College of Social Work made preliminary fieldwork in Urban districts, Plains and Mountainous of Rural districts of Quake hit-areas. Specialists of Urban-Rural planning, Architecture, Housing security, and Social Work compose a team. In this paper we will report about housing reconstruction of rural area,

Plains area MianZhu-Z Zhen and Mountainous area BeiChuan-Q.Zhen,based on the preliminary fieldwork. Damage of general condition: Many of farmers were lost their Housing ,the residence places and the main properties. The farmland was considerably maintained. However, the factory shop was destroyed and the strike for the farmer with a side business. The government has expanded financial support, the price regulation, and the materials supply. However, the construction fund, materials and construction worker's lack, and sudden rises have occurred. A lot of farmers will go to work away from home in the city for the housing fund.

This study analyzed on the process to enact 'multi-cultural family support Act' which had been passed by the National Assembly of the Republic of Korea from a gender-sensitive perspective, especially focusing on the standpoint of married female immigrants. By that analysis, this article examined how the discourse on married female immigrants was being formed in Korea, and how much the feminist critiques policy for female immigrants are accepted in policy making process. The analysis utilized materials of the National Assembly such as conference record of enacting process, examination review report, materials for a public hearing and in-depth interview with a drafter of the Act. As a result of that analysis, the Act was enacted following an idea that married female immigrants shall understand and obey the Korean culture instead of an idea that encourage people to admit cultural variety and Korea shall intend to be multi-cultural society. In addition to this, the Act put priority on the protection and support for the role of housewife in the family, and by that, it enforced the patriarchal ideology. Furthermore, in the Act, there was no solution for the problems such as marriage process managed by the brokerage business, inaccurate information and exploitation and violence against women which are fundamental causes for the difficulty of married female immigrants in Korea. To overcome these limitations and for the Korean society's development toward authentic 'multi-cultural society', efforts to recognize married female immigrants as an independent society member and to adopt their cultural variety, and policy to solve the problems cased in the marriage process managed by the brokerage business are necessary.

Full paper download: Kim S_multi-cultural family support act.pdf

The age of drinking onset among youths has been decreasing over the years in Korea, and regular alcohol use is on the rise. Heavy or risky alcohol use in early age can result in adverse effects. These include poor academic performance, emotional problems leading to depression and aggressive behavior, and poor interpersonal relationships with others that may continue to their adulthood. The purpose of this study is to examine factors that influence risky drinking among Korean adolescents, and to compare these factors between different age groups, namely middle and high school students. A stratified national sample of 1,420 middle school students and 1,312 high school students were included in the study. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire that inquired about drinking frequency and quantity, peer drinking, parent attitude toward drinking, and health belief. Study results showed that peer drinking frequency and individual health belief were influential factors for drinking frequency for both adolescent groups, but parental attitude was influential only for the middle school students and gender was a significant factor only for the high school group. Second, peer drinking was a predicting factor for alcohol consumption for both groups, and parental attitude and health belief predicted alcohol consumption for the younger group and gender predicted that for the older group. Third, 7.7% and 40.2% of middle and high school students, respectively, engaged in risky drinking (consuming more than 5 drinks), and for both groups peer drinking frequency was found to be an influential factor. The study findings indicated that different factors influence drinking behavior between two groups, and suggest the need for early prevention programs as well as differentiated program foci specific to each age group

Full paper download: Kim S_alcohol use among Korean adolescents.pdf

In this paper I will talk about psychological domestic violence occurring between husbands and wives in today's rapid development of China. Psychological violence as a form of domestic violence is very common in all forms such as physical, psychological or emotional, sexual and financial aspects (Horley, 1988; Kelly, 1988; Mooney, 2000; Smith, 1989; Yan, 2004). Indeed, in one survey in the UK half of women (48%) experienced frightening threats (Walby, 2004), while in China the phenomenon of psychological violence appears to be widespread: according to the Police Report Centre in Dalian City, 70 or 80 per cent of cases, among 834 cases of domestic violence, dealt with psychological violence (Tang, 2003). In this paper my study, with both quantitative and qualitative approaches, investigated ridicule as a form of psychological domestic violence occurring between intimates who were husbands and wives and its impact. The results of the survey (n=232: women=128; men=104) and the qualitative interviews (n=53: women=35; men=18) showed that the phenomenon of ridicule as a verbal abuse occurs between Chinese couples in the home and the public. The results of both data revealed that there is a difference in the use/experience of this behaviour between them. In particular, there is a gap between the results of both data. For example, the results of the qualitative interviews indicated that husbands may be likely actually to use this negative behaviour to their wives, while the results of the survey reported that wives may be use such behaviour more than their husbands in the home. The analysis of these results suggests that a gender difference linked to the division of labour, social policy and culture may influence ridicule behaviour used/experienced by husbands and wives. This study differs from the previous Chinese studies because it found that ridicule as verbal abuse may be used frequently by husbands and wives and because it explored this negative behaviour by both sexes.

This study examines the social policy in Cambodia by casting light on the activity of CVAP(Cambodia Veterans Assistance Program), one of the Cambodia's peace keeping policies which was designed to reduce the military budget by collecting de-mobilized soldiers. Japanese government committed CVAP since its beginning though withdrew from it in September 2007. The main hypothesis is why the difference has been caused that some can succeed while some others cannot. The JICA Report analyses the poor soldiers are ones who are weak by nature, however it seems it's too naïve to conclude it. Supporting self-independence does not merely mean providing skills training for de-mobilized soldiers for independent living but that it shall/ could also offer job opportunities and guarantees a stable income, in case of failure. I discuss this theme by providing by intensive semi-structured interview data, informal dialogues and observations at individual former soldier's house.

What kind of tripartite relations have Korea and Taiwan built since democratization? As for the tripartite relations in both countries before democratization, they are often referred to with the concept of "state corporatism". But nowadays, after 20 years of democracy, and 10 years since the Asian economic crisis, is corporatism still effective as a framework to analyze tripartite relations and the process of policy-making? In this paper I will show that it is effective, and I would also like to observe the different ways in which corporatism has appeared in both countries in recent years. In this paper, I will first explore the classical argument of Schmitter and its recent revival as the "competitive corporatism" (Section 1). Then, once the preconditions of the new corporatism in Korea and Taiwan have been presented (Section 2), I will analyze two corporatist agreements in each countries (Taiwan = Section 3, Korea = Section 4). Taking into account the abovementioned points, I will examine by comparison the nature and effects of the new corporatism in both countries (Section 5). The new corporatism in Korea and Taiwan shows a contrast that can be summarized as "big deal" (Korea) and "small deal" (Taiwan). However, even in the case of Korean tripartite negotiation, which succeeded in the "big deal", it is uncertain whether it is functioning really "competitively". Needless to say, it depends on one's point of view that how one evaluates this situation.

Full paper download: Kamimura Y_new corporatism.pdf

During the last 20 years, we have witnessed the emergence of social enterprises in Western societies as a response to the problems of welfare states and markets. Facing low fertility and aging of the population with decreasing abilities of welfare states, social enterprises were developed to provide services and work opportunities for the socially and economically disadvantaged. Recently, the Korean government has developed social enterprises as its key social program for unemployment and welfare services. The economic crisis in late 1980s has created unprecedented massive unemployment. After the government enacted the social enterprise promotion act in 2007, it has approved 109 social enterprises and announced a plan to increase the number of social enterprises annually to 1000 by year 2010. The Ministry of Labor spent 7.3 billion Won in 2003. In 2007, the budget increased to 1.3 trillion Won. Despite increasing number of social enterprise in Korea, neither a clear conceptualization nor explicit strategies for social enterprises have been proposed. A majority of academic studies on social enterprises are still in a preliminary stage by offering case studies or working on a definition and typology of social enterprises on a conceptual level (Kim and Ban, 2006; Um, 2005; Kim, 2007; Kim, 2006; the Korea Foundation for Working Together, 2006; Jung, 2005, 2006; Im, 2007). In the present study, I will examine how the nature of pre-existing welfare programs has shaped the nature of the Korean social enterprises through the institutionalization of interest groups and the competing agenda of different state organizations (e.g., the Ministry of Labor and the Ministry for Health, Welfare, and Family Affairs). I will also examine the characteristics of the Korean social enterprises, based on the 109 officially approved social enterprises, which reflects the institutional conditions previous welfare programs and state agenda. The emergence of the Korean social enterprises will demonstrate how institutional innovation in welfare policies is strongly shaped by the nature of a pre-existing welfare state regime. Finally, I will discuss the key conditions for the dilemma that the Korean social enterprises will experience.

Full paper download: Park C_social enterprises in welfare state regime.pdf

The 1997 Asian financial crisis rang the funeral bell for a development state model in Korea, which dates back to the 1970s. The then Kim Dae-jung administration, liberal reformist, launched a strong restructuring drive in every aspect of the society, sharing neo-liberalist agendas with the International Monetary Fund and international financial capitals. The drive has led Korea on a new track for socio-economic development. The newly-established pro-market development model, however, destabilized lives of people and widened socio-economic inequality. The lack of social safety net became dramatically problematic as traditional families, which had served as a substitute for it, had been undermined since the 1997 Asian financial crisis. In a tension between ever-increasing demand for social welfare and neo-liberalist pro-market framework, the Kim administration announced so-called "DJ Welfarism," which was nothing but a workfare. Korean welfare system was reduced to a limited social right based not on citizenship but on contribution, of which the approach was reformed from universality to selectivity. Korea's 'Productive Welfare,' where 'product' prevailed over 'welfare,' materialized 'social job project' initiated by the Labor Ministry, which eventually led to emerging of social enterprises. Social enterprise is a new experiment adopted from the civil society in a bottom-to-up way in the West where countermeasures of existing welfare state have exposed limitations in dealing with social exclusion amid increasing market competition. The Korean civil sphere remained relatively weak compared to the state power throughout the 1980s when development state model still played a predominant role. Since the 1990s, however, the civil society has quantitatively expanded and been a supporter of social enterprises as an effective way to counteract effects of the full-blown neo-liberalism after the 1997 financial crisis. But the legacy of developmental state has imposed a path-dependent restraint on civil society, depriving it of the chance to enhance qualitatively. Thus Korean civil society's organizational capacity has still remains feeble and weak to form social enterprises as organizations closely linked to regional communities and autonomously providing social values. On the other hand the success of 'social job projects' gave the Labor Ministry room for budgeting new pushes such as 'Social Enterprises Promotion Act' and 'Social Enterprise Authorization Act.' With these laws implemented, the ministry could exert significant influence on the process of Korean social enterprises' emerging because the government's supports and aids seemed quite attractive for those companies lacking self-generated motives. Consequently, in contrast to the West, Korean social enterprises have been adopted in a top-down approach. The result of 1st Authorization of Social Enterprises in January 2007 clearly shows us that they are actually 'for-profit version of social jobs' in the guise of social enterprises serving partly as government's hiring policy and partly as a sub-strategy of welfare reform aimed at transforming Korea into a workfare state.

Compared to the advanced countries, the employment rate of married women in Taiwan (41.2%) equals that of Italy (42.4%) and U.K. (47.3%), and surpassed that of Germany (38.4%) and Japan (17.6%). However, Taiwan's female employment rate decreases enormously while their children are aged above 3 years old. Another interesting finding of Sawako (2007) shows married women's income contribute much to Taiwan's household income about 20-45%. The female employment contributes therefore much for the family's income maintenance.

The other important pattern of female employment to be observed is the gender segregation of occupations. The service sector and the clerk position is mainly female-dominated work. The previous researches on gender segregation in labor market focus mainly on the following factors: human capital, gender bias from cultural perspective and rational choice approach. These approaches have the shortcomings of micro-analysis. This article aims to approach the problematic of occupational segregation and low female employment rate in Taiwan from the angle of Varieties of Capitalism (VoC) approach.

Based on the theoretical consideration of VoC, it is expected that firms needing highly labor skills and large size would prefer occupational or contributory insurance, whereas the employers with low labor skills small firm size would favor universal scheme. It is argued that the organizational capacities of the organizational actor (employer organization) would change this preference ordering. Contrary to Gary Beck's economic model, which assumes a single family utility function, this analysis suggests the investigation how labor markets and public policies shape gender stereotypes and for how child support rules may affect women's decisions about labor market participation.