Abstracts & Papers in Stream 4

This paper is to find out the determinant factors of job satisfaction by analyzing the differences between genders about the effect of working condition to job satisfaction in Korea. The data of 4,216 paid-employed from the 9th Korean Labor and Income Panel(2006) has been used and individual characteristics, which can affect on job satisfaction, employment characteristics, working status, goodness of fitness and commitment in work, and social welfare benefit have been analyzed. First, women satisfied more than men in their job especially there were much differences in the types of work, working environment and time, and job stability. Second, women showed lower degree in social welfare benefit gained from employment. Third, goodness of fitness and commitment(R2=37.5%) and social welfare benefit in work(R2=23.0%) was the factors that affect most on job satisfaction. Each factors showed the differences between genders. Fourth, for men job stability affected much but for women it did not affect much even though their contingent work, day labor and poor working status. Summarily, we conclude that gender affects to job satisfaction with complex factors such as employment characteristics, social welfare benefit characteristics, working status etc. Therefore, there are much needs to develop women-friendly employment assurance policy, social welfare policy and services.

Full paper download: Lee I_working condition on job satisfaction.pdf

This paper examines how the Dutch welfare system has influenced its labor market during times of structural economic changes. The findings are as following. The evolution of the Dutch welfare system has led to a smoother restructuring process and a burdened welfare state during the 1970s and 1980s. The workers were greatly channeled to the insurance programs and through this the firms have gained higher flexibility. The later reform of the welfare system tried to keep flexibility while rid its harms, resulting to decreased unemployment rates, highered participation rates, and the economy regained high growth rates. The economic shocks experienced by today's Taiwan and the past Netherlands are similar. Although differences in their social and political conditions exist, there still are lessons to learn from the Dutch experience. First of all, the different welfare benefits in Taiwan should be rearranged into a consistent system to avoid pork barrel politics, complication of the system, and unnecessary public expenditures. Secondly, since the increase of part-time workers is inevitable, their job security should be protected by laws. Lastly, we can see from the Dutch experience that extra cost for economic restructuring is unavoidable. A way to keep off redundant costs is the cooperation between employers, labor, and the government in times of economic changes. Without lengthy negotiation, the restructuring process can be accelerated and costs less to the economy.

Full paper download: Wu P_impact of social welfare system.pdf

In the West, along with economic and social changes, public expectations of older people's later life have experienced considerable changes. Significantly, 'active ageing' has become a popular discourse in current western societies. In terms of active ageing, activation of ageing labour forces was seen as a means of moderating the financial burden of pensions and social care systems and threatened of labour force shortages. Consequently, older workers are expected to increase their working years by enhancing their employability and productivity (Carmel et al., 2007:389). In the meantime, Active Labour Market Policies (ALMPs) were introduced as an integrated way to address older workers' employment difficulties. Four strategies were identified as the major methods to achieve its goals: training, private sector incentive programmes, direct employment programmes and services and sanctions (Kluve, 2006; OECD, 2006). So far, both positive and negative effects of ALMPs have been found. Positive effects of private sector incentive and job-search assistance programmes have been demonstrated (OECD, 2005) and unemployment rates have been reduced apparently (Kluve and Schmidt, 2002). However, critics also strongly argued that ALMPs ignored the importance of job quality and tended to recklessly push people to work in insecure and low-paid jobs (Carmel, 2007; OECD, 2005). As for Taiwan, due to sharp decreases in birth rates and higher life expectancy, the Taiwanese population was ageing rapidly. It is predicted that Taiwanese society will face crucial and similar challenges as the Western societies being experiencing now. For instance, the numbers of old (aged 65 +) and young (aged 0-14) will be equal by 2016; moreover, till 2025, gaps between these two age groups will be increased to 21% and 11% respectively. This research aimed to evaluate the effects and transformability of ALMPs in terms of several significant factors: social model and welfare ideologies, social and ageing culture, global economy and employment structures. In this paper, emphasis has been on an overall framework by using secondary data analysis and documentary analysis; meanwhile, an empirical work is in progress. Finally, lessons which the Western ALMPs could give to the Taiwanese labour market policies will be critically discussed and analysed.

Full paper download: Huang L_active labour market policies.pdf

Taiwan and Hong Kong has been an aging society. Concerns on the well-being and welfare of elderly, and its possible burden on the society and public finance have been a major concern in both societies. While most of the debates are on the improvement of retirement protection scheme and long-term care, relatively, lesser attention has been paid on elderly employment as an alternative for enhancing their socio-economic security. This paper will use Taiwan and Hong Kong as cases studies, discussing the background, the feasibilities and potentials of this alternative.

The two societies share some similarities: the weakening of family and kinship as a means of protection though filial piety is always emphasized in a Chinese society; rapid economic restructuring resulting in the hallowing of manufacturing sector and the increasing importance of service sectors; immature and ineffective public retirement protection system; stereotyping and hence discrimination of elderly but at the same time with stronger calling for an active and healthy aging for the elderly. All these explain the importance of elderly employment as a means to tackle elderly poverty, retirement protection and social inclusion of them through work.

Nevertheless, the elderly labor participation rates in both societies are still low, and policies to promote such alternative are still sporadic. The paper will outline and compare these policies. Making reference to similar strategies in other countries, we will discuss the possible suggestions in strengthening the policies in promoting elderly employment.

There is much complexity of factors that have impacts on job-seeking behaviors of claimants of Minimum Living Standard Guarantee System for Urban Residents (MLSGS-UR). Institutional arrangements have effects on their job-seeking behaviors and decisions by means of their influences over individual subjective and cognitive variables. Using the methods of survey, interview and documentary analysis, this study firstly analyzes what subjective variables have statistically significant impact on the job-search intensity of clients of MLSGS-UR in Shanghai, and then explores the impacts of related institutional arrangements on job-seeking intensity, and finally, the author proposes some policy suggestions for improving MLSGS-UR.